Urology refers to the area of medicine which deals with problems related to the urinary tract (kidneys, bladder and their associated structures) as well as problems effecting the external genitalia. The sort of problems which urologists deal with include kidney stones, cancers of various kinds (kidneys, bladder, testicular and prostate being the commonest) and disorders of bladder function such as overactive bladder syndrome and incontinence. Children s urology is important to of course and conditions dealt with include undescended testis, tight foreskin (phimosis) and various other congenital abnormalities. Recurring urinary infections which are dealt with by urologists are a common problem in females of all ages. Troublesome bladder symptoms due to benign, age related enlargement of the prostate gland are also very common and make up a significant part of urologists work. Patients should be reassured however that only 10% or thereabouts of those who are referred to a urologist end up actually needing surgery. Many of these conditions simply require investigations, usually involving non- or minimally-invasive tests. Urology has always been a leading specialty in minimally invasive (keyhole) surgery.